The Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP) assesses Phonological awareness, Phonological memory, and rapid naming. Persons with deficits in one or more of these kinds of Phonological Processing abilities may have more difficulty learning to read than those who do not. The CTOPP was developed to aid in the identification of individuals from kindergarten through college who may profit from instructional activities to enhance their Phonological skills. Because the Test battery spans such a wide range of ages, and the abilities it taps are so varied across the ages, it was necessary to develop two versions of the Test. The first version, developed for individuals ages 5 and 6 (primarily kindergartners and first graders), contains seven core subtests and one supplemental Test. The second version, for individuals ages 7 through 24 (persons in second grade through college), contains six core subtests and eight supplemental Tests. In both versions the supplemental Tests are provided to allow the examiner to more carefully assess specific Phonological strengths and weaknesses. Both versions are individually administered, taking about 30 minutes to administer the core subtests.
The CTOPP has four principal uses:
(a) to identify individuals who are significantly below their peers in important Phonological abilities, (b) to determine strengths and weaknesses among developed Phonological processes, (c) to document an individual’s progress in Phonological Processing as a consequence of special intervention programs, and (d) to serve as a measurement device in research studies investigating Phonological Processing.
The Test contains the following subtests:
Elision, Blending Words, Sound Matching, Memory for Digits, Nonword Repetition, Rapid Color Naming, Rapid Digit Naming, Rapid Letter Naming, Rapid Object Naming, Blending Nonwords, Phoneme Reversal, Segmenting Words, and Segmenting Nonwords.
The Phonological Awareness Quotient (PAQ) measures an individual’s awareness and access to the Phonological structure of oral language.
The Phonological Memory Quotient (PMQ) measures the examinee’s ability to code information Phonologically for temporary storage in working or short-term memory.
The Rapid Naming Quotient (RNQ) measures the examinee’s efficient retrieval of Phonological information from long-term or permanent memory, as well as the examinee’s ability to execute a sequence of operations quickly and repeatedly.
Percentiles, standard scores, and age and grade equivalents are provided. Percentiles are easily understood by parents and others with whom the examiner might want to share the results. Subtest standard scores have a mean of 10 and a standard deviation of 3. The Phonological Awareness, Phonological Memory, and Rapid Naming quotients have a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15. Age and grade equivalents show the relative standing of individuals’ scores.
The CTOPP was normed on over 1,600 individuals ranging in age from 5 through 24 and residing in 30 states. Over half of the norming sample came from children in elementary school (through grade five), where the CTOPP is expected to have its widest use. The demographic characteristics of the normative sample are representative of the U.S. population as a whole with regard to gender, race, ethnicity, residence, family income, educational attainment of parents, and geographic regions. The sample characteristics were stratified by age and keyed to the demographic characteristics reported in the 1997 Statistical Abstract of the United States.
Reliability of the CTOPP was investigated using estimates of content sampling, time sampling, and scorer differences. Most of the average internal consistency or alternate forms reliability coefficients (content sampling) exceed .80. The Test/retest (time sampling) coefficients range from .70 to .92. The magnitude of the coefficients reported from all the reliability studies suggests that there is limited error in the CTOPP and that examiners can have confidence in the results.
Ages: 5-0 through 24-11
Testing Time: 30 minutes
Includes Examiner’s Manual, 25 Profile/Examiner Record Booklets for Ages 5 to 6, 25 Profile/Examiner Record Booklets for Ages 7 to 24, Picture Book, and Audio CD, all in a sturdy storage box.